Absorption spectroscopy and its 3 basic Types

Absorption Spectrometry is known as the sensitive method to analyze the elements. It generally allows the determination of metals at the picogram level. This method has been used for various applications that involve a wide diversity of samples. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry also involves the measurement of optical radiation subsequent reduction. Nowadays, most people follow the Agilent Absorption Spectroscopy method that consists of a hollow cathode lamp that emits specific light wavelengths. These light wavelengths are absorbed by the atomic cell that helps to convert the samples into the gaseous atoms. It also comes with a detection system that can be used to isolate and quantify the interest wavelengths. Here the computer system also helps to control and collect the data during the instrument operation process. 

Absorption spectroscopy is widely used in chemical analysis due to its quantitative nature. It allows the compounds to get distinguished from each other and makes absorption spectroscopy useful in various applications. Here the infrared gas analyzers are used to identify the presence of pollutants and distinguish the pollutants from oxygen, nitrogen, and water. Determining the absolute concentration of compounds tends to require the knowledge of the compound’s absorption coefficient. This absorption coefficient is generally available from the relative reference resources. It is also determined by using the absolute concentration of the compound. Some of the common applications of Absorption Spectroscopy are Remote sensing, Astronomy, Atomic physics, and molecular physics. Apart from these absorption spectroscopies can be also used to determine the accuracy of various theoretical predictions. For example, the lamb shift is measured in the form of a hydrogen atomic absorption spectrum.

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Some of the common elements that are analyzed with Atomic Absorption Spectrometry are electrothermal atomizers and flames. Flames are generally controlled by the combustion environment. They are known to carry the advantage of ease of use, speed, and various other factors. Hence it allows the simple interface for specification along with a chromatographic system. Its efficiency is generally 5%, and the atoms get dispersed across in huge volume. This causes the sensitivity of the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry to get poor. Electrothermal Atomizers are also referred to as graphite furnaces that employ the small graphite tube where the temperature can be controlled by the different power supplies. Here further, we will refer to some of the common methods used in Absorption Spectrometry. 

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy analyzes the chemical elements by absorbing the optical radiation. Here it also uses the free atoms under a gaseous state. It generally relies on the Beer-Lambert Law, where it establishes the relationship between known analysis standards and the sample concentration. This is considered as the sensitive process that measures the parts per billion. Certain disadvantages can occur in this technique. With Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, one can only analyze the solution. Apart from this, it also requires a large amount of samples for analysis purposes and can face issues with refractory elements. 

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Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 

Absorption Spectroscopy also uses electromagnetic radiation between 190mm to 800mm. It is further divided into the ultraviolet as well as into the visible regions. The absorption of ultraviolet and visible radiation tends to lead to the transition in between the electronic energy levels of the molecule. Hence it is also referred to as electronic spectroscopy. The given information of ultraviolet or visible radiation can provide you with clues for valuable structural information when combined with other sources of spectral data. Here the electric component of the electromagnetic waves is considered as the important one. The light that travels through the space is represented by the sinusoidal trace. The origin of this absorption is related to the valence electrons, and it can be generally found in any of the types of electron orbitals named single, double, and nonbonding orbitals. The single orbital tends to occupy the lower energy as compared to the nonbonding orbitals. 

Optical Absorption Spectroscopy 

Absorption Spectroscopy is also used to determine the mass concentration of the element, whether it is solid or liquid. This method is generally based on the atomic absorption principle, where the ground state electrons are elevated to the excited state by absorbing the energy derived from the light of a specific wavelength. Here the simple mass concentration can be quantified due to the energy absorption to the atoms in the light path.

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